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Updates and Spreadsheets

WordPress has switched to a new kind of editor that does not always deal well with text that is cut and pasted from a Microsoft Word file. Some of the pages I created with the text of the transcriptions turned out to have some software induced errors because of this. Therefore I have replaced them with PDF files. I have consolidated the pages for the “Schedule of Propositions made by the Indians” into one page from which you can download two versions of the complete transcription, one in chronological order and one in the order of the microfilm.

Just in case some reader has a use for it, I have also added a page from which you can download an Excel Workbook with spreadsheets that contain inventories of the records.

All of these are available from the menu at the top of the page.

I promise that my next post will be less technical and have more of a story line.


The Records for 1753-1755

Following the resignation of the Commissioners for Indian Affairs in November 1746, William Johnson (on behalf of New York) as well as representatives from other colonies all negotiated with the Six Nations individually and the situation was chaotic at times. The commissioners were reinstated briefly from mid 1753 through the beginning of 1755, only to be replaced again by Johnson in May 1755. You can download their records for 1753-1755 here or from the menu at the top of the page. 

It is hard to believe, but I have now finished transcribing all of the previously untranscribed records for the Commissioners of Indian Affairs at Albany! I am going to add some more analysis and indexing, especially for the portions that are out of chronological order. Then I will finally turn back to writing both the book that got me started on all this and some other projects that have emerged from these records.

Minute Book 3: 1729-February:


1729-2-22_alcohol[There are no entries for January 1729.]

In their first conference with Governor John Montgomerie in October 1728, the Haudenosaunee are recorded as saying they were glad the new Brother Corlaer was “a wise and prudent Man.” Perhaps this was more than the language of diplomatic flattery. Montgomery does seem to have gone farther than his predecessors in responding to one of the long standing complaints of the Six Nations, who had been trying for years to stem the destructive flow of alcohol into their country.  In February, after the Six Nations reminded them of Montgomerie’s agreement, the Commissioners of Indian Affairs issued a proclamation to all traders and others forbidding the transportation of strong liquor to any place in or near the “upper castles” (towns) of the Six Nations. Only Oswego was exempt, as agreed to at the conference. On the other hand, their use of the term “upper castles” suggests that at the very least Fort Hunter, and probably other Mohawk and Oneida communities, were not protected.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for February is here on p. 281.

[0566] 281 [Wraxall mentions this p. 176.]

Albany the 22d Febry 1728/9



Philip Livingston

Henry Holland

[Jo]h: Cuyler

Peter Van Brugh

Evert Bancker

Rutger Bleecker

Evert Wendell

Nicolas Bleecker

Abraham Cuyler

[Joh].s Roseboom

Barent Sanders                        Whereas It has been represented in publick

Proposition to his Excy John Montgomerie Esq.r

Governour of New York &c by the Sachims of the 6 nations

how Dangerous the Selling of Rum & other Strong Liquor

is in their Castles and that great mischiefe may Ensue

from it they have Straineously desired that it may be

Prohibited, that no Christians may bring or Carry any Rum

among them in their Countrey for that will one way or Other

Create a Quarrell between them and our people; which

request has been granted them by his said Excy. And

the Sd. Indians have now lately repeated to the Comm:rs of the

Indian Affairs at Albany. Wherefore the said

have thought fit for his Majesties Service to Notifie to

All Traders and others, not to Convey Transport or Carry

any Rum or Other Strong Liquor at or near the upper Castles

of the Five Nations (Oswego only Excepted) on Penalty as

they Shall Answer the Contrary on their perill for Such

Contempt in disturbing the publick peace of this Province


Minute Book 3: 1729

There are no duplicate entries for 1729. The originals are in chronological order except that a second copy of the conference between Governor Montgomery and the Six Nations and their Allies held in October of the previous year is inserted after the entries for October 1729 (pages 299a-309a.) It corresponds to the printed version in DRCHNY 5:859 et seq. and I have not transcribed it. You can access the full text above in the menu at the top of the page or download it as a PDF here: aic_recordbooks-v1-1729only

Minute Book 3: 1728-November: Problems Continue at Oswego

Excerpt from the 1727 De Lery map of Oswego showing bateaux and canoes as well as the tents and cabins of the garrison.

The last entries for 1728, dated November 9 and 26, show that nothing had been solved at Oswego. The bateaux that were now the preferred means of transporting provisions had not been able to take up enough stores for the garrison for the winter, so the commissioners agreed with someone to bring more “with all Speed.” Captain Bagly told them that the garrison’s boats were in such bad shape that they could not be mended.  At least six new ones needed to be made.

The commissioners wrote to the governor informing him about all this. They also sent him information about Laurence Claessen’s report on the land at Oswego that the governor had requested from the Six Nations, but the entry in the records provides no details.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entries for November start on p. 280. The transcription is below.

[0564] 280

Albany the 9:th Novemb:r 1728

May it Please your Excy

Wee had the Honour to Write your Excie on

the 17th Ultimo Since w:ch Wee had an Information this

Day of the Quantity of Provisions gone up to the Garrison

of Oswego; thereby Finding that the Batoes Could not Carry

So much as is wanting to Supply the Garrison all Winter

Therefore Have thought highly necessary to Send up one

or Two Battoes Provisions with all Speed in order to

Wee are agreed w:th a Man who undertook the Same, all

Wee thought Wee Were in duty bound to Communicate to

your Excelly and Remain w:th due Respect

Your Excelly’s most Hble & most

Obedient Servants

Myndert Schuyler

Rutger Bleecker

Steph.s Groesbeck Cuyler

Abr. Cuyler

Joh.s Roseboom

Ryer Gerritse

Nicolas Bleecker

Harmanus Wendell

Barent Sanders

Hennry Holland


Memorandum of Provisions

Which are gone up to Oswego

in Octob.r Last

12 Porke

7 D:o Beefe

143 lbs flower

61 Sk. Pease

[0565] 280a

Albany the 16 Novemb 1728

May it Please your Excy

Our Last was the 9o Inst. Since have

not recd any of your Excy’s kind Favours

This Serves to acquaint your Excy that

Capt. Bagly arrived here this day who Informed us

that the Battoes belonging to the Garrison of Oswego

Were So much out of Order that it is Impossible to

have them Mended, So that Wee think it will be highly

Necessary to have at least halfe a Dozen New ones

Made to Support that Garrison As Concerning

Provisions Wee Referr to Capte Bagly As also

Concerning Lourence Claese the Interpreter who

Acquainted us Concerning the Land at Oswego, of

here Inclosed goes a Draught to which Wee also Referr

No more at present but Take Leave to Subscribe

Our Selves

Your Excy’s most Hble & Most

Obedt. Servants

Myndert Schuyler

Evert Bancker

Harm. Groesbeck

Joh.s Roseboom

Abr: Cuyler

Harm. Wendell

J: V. Renslaer

Joh.s Cuyler

Nicolas Bleecker

Joh.s Lansingh

Barent Sanders

[There are no entries for December 1728.]

Minute Book 3: 1728-October Part 2: Provisions, Interpreters, and Surveyors at Oswego; A New Oneida Chief; Attack on the Senecas

Provisions, Interpreters, and Surveyors at Oswego

Even before the conference ended the commissioners sent boats to Oswego with provisions to ease the chronic shortages there.  Along with them they sent Captain Verplank and William Printhop Junior, who were instructed to make sure the provisions arrived safely and then to remain at Oswego for six months to serve as interpreters and messengers for the officer in command. Despite the complaints about him, John Price was still in charge there.  They were soon joined by Lawrence Claessen, who was sent to assist with the delicate task of selecting and surveying the land to be laid out for the English to use to raise food for the garrison.

The Commissioners of Indian Affairs Recognize A New Oneida Title Holder


On October 9th, the commissioners met with an Oneida delegation that presented the new holder of a chief’s title which the commissioners spelled “Ondaghsichta.” They said they “had Appointed and Deputed a fitt Person in the room of Ondaghsighta dec[eased], who was one of their Chiefs and as a Tree of Peace, they do now Present this new Sachim before this meeting Who is now also named Ondaghsighta [.]” They said the new sachim had affirmed his support for the English and asked the commissioners to accept him as the new Ondaghsighta.  The request was accompanied by a string of wampum. The commissioners said they were “very much pleased that they have appointed a fitt Person in the room of the [deceased] Sachim Ondagsighta” and hoped he would be “faithfull and True to his [Majesties] Interest & Take Care of the Publick Affairs of this Province.” They accepted him as a chief and gave him a shirt.

In The Great Law and the Longhouse, William Fenton lists the titles of the principal chiefs of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy (p. 191 et seq.) and describes the ritual for installing a new title-holder (p. 180 et seq.).  My guess is that Ondaghsichta is probably the commissioners’ way of spelling the name of the first Oneida chief in Fenton’s list, which he spells Ho’datche:hde’ meaning ” “Carries quiver [of arrows]” (Fenton p. 183). The first holder of the name was an Oneida leader who helped to found the Haudenosaunee confederacy, as described in Arthur Caswell Parker’s book The Constitution of the Five Nations (Albany: University of the State of NY, 1916), based on versions of the story preserved by Six Nations leaders in Canada.  The story explains how the first holder received the name, which Parker spells as Odatshedeh (p. 25) or Oh-dah-tshe-deh or (in a footnote) Odatce’te’ (p. 82.).

Joseph Van Size Wants More Money to Work in Seneca Country

The commissioners attempted to carry out the agreement made at the conference with Governor Montgomerie to send Joseph Van Size and Hendrick Wemp to Seneca Country to work as smith and armorer, but Van Size wanted more money than the commissioners could offer him. Instead they sent Wemp by himself for six months “with another [unspecified] fitt Person.” Wemp’s instructions order him to recover the smith’s shop at “Canoussodago” along with its tools and utensils from any one who might have them. They sent a note to Joseph Yetts [Yates?] along with Wemp ordering him to turn them over and instructing him to go to Onondaga and work there as a smith.

Attack on the Senecas, Confusion in Albany

The commissioners wrote the governor on October 17th to explain that two days before they had received a message that Oswego had been attacked from a man who had gotten the information from a messenger who came to Mohawk Country from the Senecas Country.  However when Lawrence Claessen spoke with the messenger he found that the unnamed man who brought the news to the commissioners had misunderstood the messenger.  In reality it was some Senecas living at the “Carrying place of Niagara about three leagues from the French house” who had been attacked, but no one knew what nation had attacked them.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for Verplanck and Printhop’s instructions starts here on p. 266. Claesen’s instructions start here on page 276a, followed by the other entries. The transcription is below.

[0536] 266

By the Comm:rs of the Indian Affairs at


Instructions for Capt:n Verplank and William

Printhop Jun.r To Oswego

Whereas the generall Assembly have

thought fitt that Two Proper men be Sent to Oswego

for the Space of Six Months — You are hereby

Required to go Forthwith in Company with the

Men who go up now w:th Batoes to Carry up Provisi=

=ons to Osweego and use your utmost Endeavours

that the Same be Safely Delivered to the Command:g

Officer of his Majesties Troops Posted at

Oswego. on your arrival there you are to Abide

and Stay there for the Space oif Six Months

after your Departure from hence — And serve

as Interpreters for the Officer and to Advise w:th him

from Time to Time what is best and most proper

for his Majesties Service, and you are to go such

Messuages Either to this place or to the Indians

or Elsewhere as Shall be Necessary for the Service

and generally to do all things which Shall be

Proper and Necessary according to the best of

your Ability; you are to Demand and receive

Provisions dureing your Stay there from Captain

John Price or the Commanding Officer for the

Time being the Assembly having Provided for


[0537] 266a

It, Given under our hands in Albany this

2d Day of October in the Second year of His Maj.ties

Reign An:no Dni.e 1728

Ph: Livingston p

Order of the

[0557] 276a

Att a Meeting of the Comm:rs of the Indian

Affairs in Albany the 8:th day of Octob.r 1728


Ph: Livingston

Rutger Bleecker

Henry Holland

Har. Wendell

John Cuyler

Evert Wendell

Reyer Gerritse

Abraham Cuyler

Whereas His Excy. Jno. Montgomerie Esq.r

Captain Gen:ll and Govern.r in Chiefe of the Provinces of

New york New Jersey &c Hath on Request of the

Sachims of the Six Nations Consented that Lourence

Claese the Interpreter do go them to Marke out the

Land w:ch they have in their publick Propositions

given and granted to his Majesty King George the

Second, the Said Interpreter appearing before this

Board Desired to have Instructions how to behave

himselfe in this Affair which is orderd Accordingly


By the Comm:rs for the Indian Affairs

at Albany

Instructions for Mr. Laurence Claese the


Whereas His Excie Jno Montgomery

Esq.r Captain Gen:ll and Govern.r in Chiefe of the Provinces

New Yorke New Jersey etc; Hath Consented to the

Sachims of the Six Nations that you go up in Company w:th

them to Marke out them the Land at Oswego

they have in their Publick Propositions Given and


[0558] 277

Granted to his Majesty King George the Second

for the use of his Majestys Garrison posted at

Oswego, You are therefore hereby required & Command[ed]

forthwith to go up in Company the sd Sachims

Accompanyed one able man, and use y.r utmost

Endeavour w:th ye Sachims to get Markd out by them

as Large a Tract of Land at Oswego as possible you Can

and be Present at the Said Marking or Laying out of

the Said Land Taking Speciall Notice at what place

the Said Land begins, what Course it runs into the

Woods and how farr from a Creek or River / nameing them /

and as near as you Can how many yards or what Dis=

=tance, it runs from the place they Stop, Noteing the

Same down in Writeing and Describing the Said Tract

of Land as well as you are Able and Deliver it on

your Return unto us under your hand that Wee

may Transmitt the Same unto his Said Excie our Gov:r

Given under out hand this 8.o day of October in the

Second year of His Majesties Reign Anoq Dom 1728


Att a Meeting of the Comm:rs of the Indian

Affairs in Albany the 9th of October 1728


Ph: Livingston

Mynd.t Schuyler

Evert Bancker

Rutger Bleecker

Henry Holland

Steph. Groesbeek

Harm. Windell

Joh.s Cuyler

Ab. Cuyler

Jeremy van Renselaer

Reyer Gerritse

John Lansigh               Some Sachims of the Oneydes

appearing before this Board Acquainted

the Gentlemen that they had Appointed and

Deputed a fitt Person in the room of

Ondaghsighta decd, who was one of their

Chiefs and as a Tree of Peace, they do now

Present this new Sachim before this meeting

Who is now also named Ondaghsighta


[0559] 277a

Whom they have Recommended to be firm

to the English Interest and Take Care of the Publick

Affears he has Promised and Desires that he

may be Accepted by this Board as a Sachim of

their Nation. This they ought to have done before but

has hitherto been Neglected. Give a String of


The Comm:rs Told them that they are

very much pleased that they have appointed a fitt

Person in the room of the deced Sachim Ondagsighta

and hope that his new Sachim may be faithfull

and True to his Majties Interest & Take Care of

the Publick Affairs of this Province in Expectation

thereof do accept him as one of the Chiefs of their

Nation In Token whereof Gave him a Shirt

In Pursuance of a Order from his Excie Govern.r

Montgomerie of the 7th Instant the have

Sent for Jos. Van Size and Hendrick Wemp

Smith & Armourer in order to Agree them to go

to Worke for the Sinnekes in their Country who

now appear for this Meeting and being proposed

to Said Van Size & Wemp to go thither to Worke for

Said Indians for the Space of Six Months, and

being askd for what Sum they would Serve, Who

Demand forty Pounds for that Service, to be paid

by the Gentlemen of this Board, On wh the Comm:rs

Offerd them thirty for w:ch they Decline to go, And

Whereas there is no Provision Made by the

[0560] 278

Assembly for the Payment of Smiths in the Indian

Country, and it being very necessary that the Indians

Should be So much gratified in their request on the

Promise hi Excy Made unto them in Publick that

the Said Smith and Armourer Should forthwith go up

to the Sinnekes If neglected would make His

Excy’s Promise to be of no Effect and May phappse [perhaps?]

Prove of Dangerous Consequence to his Majties

Interest and the Welfare of this Province Whereon

It was Proposed and Agreed Hendrick Wemp alone

(while Said Jos. Van Size refused to go) to the Sinnekes

w:th another fitt Person to Worke for the Sinneke

Indians for the Space of Six months to Expire pmo.

May next, for the Sum of Twenty five Pounds to be

Paid him within Six Months after his Return home

by the Gentlemen now Present in Case no Provision

be made by the Publick for the Payment of said mony

not Doubting but Effectuall Care will be Taken for

the Payment thereof

By the Comm:rs of the Indian Affairs

at Albany

Instructions for Hend.k Wemp Smith

Whereas the Sachims of the Sinnekes

have Desired His Excy John Montgomerie Esq.r

Captain Gen:ll and Govern.r in Chiefe of the Provinces of

New Yorke New Jersey &c to Grant them a Smith &

an Armourer to Work for them for the Space of Six


[0561] 278a

Months his Said Excy has been pleased to Grant

them Wherefore Wee do by his Said Excy’s orders

and Directions hereby Require and Directions

hereby Require and Direct you forthwith to go a fitt

Person to the Sinnekes Castle called Canoussodago

on your Arrival there you are to Demand in the name

of His sd Excy our Governour from the Sinneke Sachims

or any Person or Persons whatsoever all the Smiths

Utensills and Tools from those who shall or may have

them in his or their Possion [possession] are there belonging to

the Publick as also the Smiths Shopp Therefore all

Persons Concernd are hereby Strictly Chargd and

Commanded to deliver the same unto you as he or they will

Answer to the Contrary at his or their Utmost

Perrill And as soon as you Shall have the sd Tools &

Utencills and Shopp in your Custody Care and possion

you are to Worke as Smith for the sd. Indians the

Man who is to go you to Assist you for Six Months

from the Date hereof — Given under hands in Albany

the 9th day of October 1728

Johannis Lansingh                  Philip Livingston

Joh.s Cuyler                            Myndert Schuyler

Nicolas Bleecker                     Rutger Bleecker

Barent Sanders                        Stevanis Groesbeck

Abraham Cuyler

Harm: Wendell

Henry Holland

Reyer Gerritse

Evert Wendell

[0562] 279

Joseph Yetts                            Alby the 9th of Octob:r 1728

Whereas his Excy our Govern:r at the

Desire of the Sinneke Sachims has Consented that

they shall have a Smith this next Winter as well as the

Onondages & in Pursuance of his Excy’s order, Wee have

Agreed w:th the bearer Hendrick Wemp to Work for the

Sinnekes, Therefore you are Orderd & Commanded to deliv.r

to Said Wemp, all the Smiths Tools Bellows Pick Iron

HHuys, and all what doth belong thereto & you are

hereby also Orderd to Work your Time at Onondago, and

hereof you are not to Faile as you will Answer the

Contrary at your Perill

Signed as before

Albany the 17th of Octob: 1728

May it Please your Excy

Wee shall be glad to hear of your

Excy’s Safe Arrivall at New York and hope this may

Find your Excy in Perfect health, Wee Take Leave to

Inform your Excy that on the 15th Instant about 10 a Clock

at Night Wee received the Surprising News by Seven

hands of Wampum; that the House at Oswego was

Cutt off, on which Wee Sent Immediately to the Maquase

Country where the Indian who brought this Intelligence

Stayed being Tired in Comeing 5 days from the Sinnekes

Country who on Examination by Lourence Clase the

Interpreter, It Appeared the man from whom Wee had

the Intelligence had Misunderstood the Indian but

not the Interpreter Sends us a Letter this day that

Some Sinneches and other Indians who lived on

the Carrying place of Niagara, about three Leagues

from the French house are Cutt off and burnt

down but by what Nation of Indians this mischiefe


[0563] 279a

Has been Done is not yet known, is the needfull

at Present from those who are w:th respect etc

Ph: Livingston

Myndert Schuyler

Evert Bancker

Rutger Bleecker

Henry Holland Steph: Groesbeck

Harm: Wendell

Nicolas Bleecker

Evert Wendell

Barent Sanders


Minute Book 3: 1728-October Part 1: Governor Montgomerie’s First Conference with the Six Nations, Schaghticokes, and “River Indians”

Governor John Montgomerie’s first conference with New York’s native allies  began on October first.  The records contain two versions. What was probably the official version begins on page 299a of the records and is printed in DRCHNY volume 5, beginning at 5:859. Another version, likely a first draft, begins on page 263 of the records. It is worded a little differently but the sense is the same.

Land at Oswego for the English to Raise Food, Evidence of Haudenosaunee Orchards?

The Haudenosaunee sachims welcomed the new governor in a meeting held before the conference opened. They expressed sorrow over the death of King George I and celebrated the succession of George II in a speech that is interesting because it uses metaphors related to the cultivation of fruit trees, including grafting branches and covering roots, suggesting that these techniques may have been part of their practices during this period. The conference opened the next day with a speech by the new governor, who described his difficult five-month journey across the Atlantic before conveying greetings from the new King of England and renewing the covenant chain in his name.

Governor Montgomerie then asked to have land at Oswego marked off for the English to raise food for the troops. The Six Nations (Haudenosaunee) agreed to this idea, naming Laurence Claessen as the best person to assist with measuring and marking the land.  They refused to say how much land they would provide, explaining that they needed to consult with people not present at the conference before they could give a figure. No mention was made of a sale and no deed was signed. The orders given to Laurence Claessen after the conference ended instruct him to carry out a precise survey of “as Large a Tract of Land at Oswego as possible you Can” and bring it back to the commissioners.

A Compromise on Alcohol

Besides discussing the land, the parties renewed the Covenant Chain with each other, exchanged gifts including wampum, and went over issues familiar from previous conferences. The Haudenosaunee asked the new governor to prevent traders from bringing alcohol to their country because it was leading to violence and even murders. He insisted that the traders needed to bring rum to refresh the soldiers at Oswego and asked them not to molest the traders. Eventually they agreed to the use of alcohol at the Oswego Trading House and Montgomerie agreed to forbid the English to take it to the communities of the Six Nations. The Haudenosaunee also asked that the traders sell pure rum rather than mixing it with water. It is possible that the illness that still afflicted the troops at Oswego was related to problems with Oswego’s water supply which could affect rum if the tainted water was used to dilute it.

Who Defends Fort Oswego Against the French?

The governor also asked the Haudenosaunee to protect Fort Oswego against possible French attacks. They responded that it was their understanding that it had been constructed to protect them rather than for them to protect. Eventually they agreed to assist with its defense, acknowledging their experience with French attacks. They urged   the English both to make sure that the traders bring guns and ammunition to Iroquois and to keep military supplies on hand at Albany in case of need. Both sides promised to support each other and boasted of their military prowess.

The governor also urged the Haudenosaunee not to join the French and their allies in the war against a “Remote Nation,” probably meaning the Meskwaki (Fox). They asked for cheaper prices for goods and requested Joseph Van Size and Hendrick Wemp to work as smith and armorer in their country, adding that the French smith there was old and going blind.

Anglo-Dutch Farmers Encroach on Schaghticoke Lands

Corn growing near the Knickerbocker Mansion Historic Site at Schaghticoke NY, August 2015

Governor Montgomerie renewed the Covenant Chain in a separate conference with the Schaghticoke and River Indians, for which they thanked him. He urged them to bring back those of their nation who had moved away, but they explained that it was difficult because they had less and less land at Schaghticoke to plant on. They told him that recently their European neighbors had planted on the Scaghticoke’s land, allowed their cattle to destroy Schaghticoke crops, and carried off corn from their fields. The governor asked for the names of the trespassers so he could punish them.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for the draft version starts here on p. 263. The transcription is below.

[0530] 263

X                                 Albany p:rmo Octob.r 1728


His Ex.cie John

Montgomerie Esq.r

Fran. Harrison } of the Council

Ph: Livingston}

The Comm:rs of Ind:n  Affairs

The Sachims of the Six Nations

being this day Arrived desired to have a Conference

with his Ex:cy Jn.o Montgomerie Esq:r before His Made his Proposition to them who appeared at

His Ex:cies Lodgings and Made the following Speech

Brother Corlaer

Last fall you Sent us a messuage, w:th a

Token to Each Nation that his late Majesty King

George the first was deceased for which wee was very

[Sorry – crossed out] Much Concernd and heartily Sorry because he

Was a King of Peace a Mighty Protector

of his Subjects and allies, but at the Same

Time wee reced the good news that his Son Prince

George now King George the Second Was already

Crown’d in his Place hopeing that he may follow

his fathers Steps — Give a Few Skinns

You Acquainted us at the Same Time

that King George was a young man Wee hope he

may Follow his Fathers Steps that he may be as a

Large Flourishing Tree that the branches thereof

may reatch up to Heaven that he may be Seen of

all People and Nations in the World

Wee Ingraft Siantes on the Same branches

Which Wee hope may Thrive and that the Leaves

thereof May never Fade nor Fall off but that the

Same May grow and Flourish that his Majestys

Subjects and his Allies May Live in Peace and


[0531] 263a

quiet under the Shade of the same: Gave a Few Skinns

Just Now Wee grafted on the Large fine

Flourishing Tree Now Wee Come and Cover the Roots

Thereof in Case there might be any Part of them bear

that the Roots may be Sound and Spread themselves

through the whole Earth that the Tree may Stand fast

and Firm that no Storms nor Violent Tempestes may

be able to Move Shake or Endanger the Same, Gave a

Few Skinns

Wee have now done wt wee Intended to Say at


His Excell:y answerd Them

I am Thankfull for your kind Speech His Maj:tie

has ordered me to Tell you that he Will be your kind

Father and Protector, I shall too Morrow Acquaint

With the Messuage His Majesty has orderd me to

Deliver to you And gave them a barrell of

Beer to drink his Majestys Health

[0532] 264

Propositions Made by his Ex:cie John Montgomerie

Esq:r Captain Generall and Governour in Chiefe of the

Provinces New York New Jersey &c. to the Sachims of the

Six Natkions viz:t Maquase Onydes Cayouges, Onondages

Sinnekes and Tuskarois in Albany the 2d day of October

in the Second year of his Maj.ties Reign Ann.o Domni 1728


His Ex:cie John



Geo: Clerke

Francis Harrison

Ph: Livingston            } of his Maj.ties

Capt. Long                              Councill

[Lt.] James

D Lansee

The Comm:rs of

Indian Affairs

The Mayor

[&] Aldermen


The Concern you Exprest

yesterday for the Loss of his late Majesty the King of

Great Brittain will Recommed you very much to the favour

of his Son the Present King who as he Succeeds to his throne

Inheritts all his Virtues and I hope the kind Message

I am to deliver to you from him Will Comfort you for his

Fathers Death. Give three Stroud blankets

[0533] 264a


It is great Pleasure that I meet you here and

I am verry Sorry that I Could not do it Sooner, but you will

be Convenced that it was not my Fault when I tell you that

in Crossing the great Lake I met wth So Violent Storms that

I was driven Quite off this Coast and it being in the Winter

Season was Forced to go a great way Southard to refit the

Man of War in Which I Came So it was five Months after

I Came from England before I arrived in New Yorke. The

business of that Province was Absolutely necessary

to be done at my first arrival has detained me there Ever

Since and retarded my delivering [to you – crossed out] the kind Message

I am Charg’d with from my Master the King of Great

Brittain His Majesty has order’d me to Tell you that

he Loves you as a Father dos his Children, and that

this affection [in him – crossed out] towards you is occasiond by his

being Certainly Informed that you are a brave and

Honest People the Two Qualitys in the World that

Recommend most Either particular Persons or a

People to him. He has also been Informed that you Love

his Subjects the English and that you desire to Live

them as Brethren. He has therefore Commanded me to

Renew the old Covenant Chain between you and all

his Subjects in North America and

[several lines crossed out appear to say “I have (illeg.] Indians under his Majesty’s Protection, and to Make it Brighter if possible than ever it was before]

to make it brighter if

Possible than Ever it was before and I expect you will give me

[illeg.] to do the like on your Parts

Give a Large Belt of Wampum


Besides the two Qualitys of Bravery and

Honesty his Majesty is convinced that you are a wise

People and good Judges of your own Intrest; How

happy then must you think your Selves when the greater

and Powerfullest Monarch in Christendom Sends me

here to Confirm the ancient Friendship betwixt you

and his Subjects to Assure you of his Fatherly Care

[0534] 265

And to tell you that he thinks himselfe Oblidged to Love

and Protect you as his own Children You need fear no

Enemies while you are true to your Alliance him; I

Promise you to take Care that none of your Brethren here

Shall do you Wrong and if any other Neighbouringe

Nations be So bold as to attempt to Disturb you, You

need not fear what they Dare or Can do, Since you have the

King of Great Brittain on your Side, who is a Prince

Early Initiated in the Art of War and formed by Nature

for the greatest Military Atchievements, will when Ever

there is Occasion for it Put himselfe at the head of the finest

body of Troops in the World who are all his own Naturall

born Subjects has at Present a Fleet of Shipps in So good

Order and So well Commanded that they would be Masters

of the great Lake altho’ the Fleets of all the Kings in Europe

Were Joyn’d against them. Give a Belt


After what I have Told you I am Convinced

That So wise a People as you are will glory in behaving

as becomes the Faithfull Children of So great and Powerful

a King who Loves you and will Resent any Injury done

you as if it was done to his Children on the other Side of

the great Lake  Gave a [belt – crossed out] String


I expect you are now Convinced that the

Garrison and house Erected at Oswego is not only for the

Conveniency of the far Indians to Carry on their Trade w:th the

Inhabitants of this Province but also for your Security and

Conveniency to Trade there for Such Necessarys as you

have Occasion for and at as Easy Terms as if none of the

upper Nations Came to Trade thither — I make no doubt

but you will at all Times willingly defend this Garrison

against all Attempts which may be Made against


[0535] 265a

It according to your Former Promises and Engagemts

I desire you to give and Grant unto your kind Father

His Most Sacred Majesty a Convenient Tract of Land to

be Cleared and Manured for his Men to Raise Provisions

for them and Pasturadge for their Cattle; Give a Belt I heare that you

have been often apprehensive that a Trade w:th the far Nations

Would be to your Prejudice, as that it would Make the

Goods you Want dear But I Can assure you that the Woolen

Manufactory in England is Able to Supply the whole

[Christian – crossed out] World. Therefore the greater trade is Carried on

the More and greater will be the Supply and Cheaper

than formerly; And I do Entreat you to be kind to the

Traders and not Molest them as they go up but to lett

Them pass Quietly Give a String of Wampum

I am Informed that the Indians from Canada who are

gone up w:th the French Army agt. a Remote Nation of

Indians have been Among you Endeavourd to Intice

your young men to go to Warr them agt. a People who

never do anoy nor Molest you Am glad they have refusd

to Joyn them, whereby you Show you Endeavour to

Cultivate a good Understanding with those Indians

Make them thereby your Friends and Encourage the

good Design of Promoteing a Trade w:th us and you;

I do Expect they will Persist in their good Deportment

Towards those and all other Remote Nations which

Will be a Means to Strenghten your Alliances and

Make you a great People  Give a String of Wampum

I do Inform you that His most Gracious Sovereign King

George my Mast.r your Indulgent Father has orderd me to make

you in his name a Handsome Present in Such Goods as are

most Suitable for you w:ch you Shall Receive as Soon as you

Shall have Given me your answer  Give a String

[0538] 267


Annswer made by the Sachims of the Six

Nations 1728 The Maquace Oneydes Onondages

Cayouges Sinnekes and Tuskaroras to His Excy John

Montgomorie Esq:r The 4.o day of October 1728


His John Mont

gomerie Esq:r &c.

Geo: Clarke     }

Ph: Livingston } of the Councill

The Comm:rs of Ind Affairs

Brother Corlaer

Wee are very glad that you are

arrived here in good health you Told us that your

Master the King of Great Brittain had Sent you

It is a very Dangerous Voyage in Coming over the

great Lake, The reason that wee are glad you are

arrived in health is because of the good Messuage

you bring us of your great Master the King of Great

Brittain, Wee would have been very Sorry If any

accident had happend to your Ex.cie in this dangerous




You acquainted us w:th your Coming

Hither that you have Mett w:th an Accident and been

Driven from the Coast &c. and been five Months in

Coming to [the – crossed out] your Governmt.



You Acquainted us that was the

Reason that Detained you At your first


[0539] 267a


Arrivall from Meeting us no Sooner

You Told us also you was orderd by the

Great King your Master to Renew in his Name the

Old Covenant Chain w:th us, not only to Renew the same

but To make it brighter and Stronger than Ever

Brother Corlaer

You have renewed the old

Covenant Chain the five nations in the name

of your Master now the King of Great Brittain

Wee Renew the old Covenant Chain in the like

Manner                        Give a Belt



This Silver Coven.t Chain wherein Wee are

[Joynd – crossed out] Linkd together That wee Make Stronger & Cleaner

that the Same be bright, Brother Wee shall not give

you any occasion of the breach of our Covenant If you

are Like Minded Then Wee and our Childrens Children

Shall Live in Peace


Brother Corlaer

You Acquainted us also that the

Great King your Master and our Father, Bears

great kindness to us as a Father Doth to his

Children; And If any Harm or Attempts shall be

Made on us, That our Father will Resent it

as If it was done to his Children on the other Side

Of the great Lake for kind Messuage Wee return

you our most hearty Thanks — Gave a Belt


Brother Corlaer           Wee shall not repeat your Excies Proposition

but Only the Principall Matters therein Contained


[0540] 268


Brother Corler

You Told us what was the reason why

His Majesty the King our Father so Affectionatly

Loved us for Two Qualifications of being an honest &

brave People

Brother Corlaer

It is true as you Say that the Six Nations

When they are Sober and not in Drink They will not

Molest or Injure any body, but there is one thing in

the Way that is Strong Liquour Which your Subjects

bring up to our Country — Therefore brother Wee desire

you very Strongly to Prohibitt the Sending or Carrying up

any Strong Liquour for that Will by one thing or

Other Create a Quarrell between your People and our young

Indians, our Ancestors have Fetched the Rum out of

this City when they wanted it. Let them who want Rum

be it Man or Woman Fetch it [hither – crossed out] from hence — Therefore Wee

Desire again that you do not Refuse our Request but to

Grant it Effectually; If you knew it Wee have already

Lost Many Men thro Liquor which has been brought

up; that our People kill one another Give a String of Wampum

This is now a day of Joy & gladness that wee meet together in this place

of Treaty That wee May Smoke a Pipe in friendship and it is very

acceptable to us to meet yr Excy here in good health —

Brother Corlaer

You have recomended us relateing the Traders

Who go up to lett them Pass and Repass freely without any

Molestation; Wee Promise to do them all Friendly Offices

in our Power, Let them Come Such Goods as Powder

Lead Strowds and other dry Goods [&c.] They will be welcome

Except Rum —

Brother Corlaer

you desired us for a Tract of Land near

The House at Oswego for the men to Plant on To raise

Provisions for them and Pasturadge for their Cattle

[0541] 268a

Brother Corlaer

It is with full Consent of the Six Nations

[illeg. crossed out] allowed you to Plant and sow at or near Oswego

and to have Pasturadge for your Cattle according to your Desire

and Wee shall make out such a Tract of Land as shall be necessary

to Raise Provisions for the men and Pasturadge for

their Cattle but Wee should not be Pleased that after it

be markd out, You do go beyond the Limitts which

Wee do Fix Give a String [Give a Belt – Crossed out]

Brother Corlaer

You Told us also that you Expected If

any Attempts be Made Against the House at Oswego

Wee Should Defend it; Wee Acquaint you that last

year when Liberty was Desired to build there it was

told us that the same was built there on Purpose to

Defend and Protect the Six Nations because It is

a Fronteer of our Nations Therefore Wee Rely on

your Promises to Perform them

Brother Corlaer

you told us also that the Six Nations

Imagined that If the farr Indians bought

Goods there thy would become Dear, but that the more

Trade there is the more Goods will be sent hither

and that there is Wool Enough in England to Supply

the whole World w:th Goods

Brother Corlaer

you acquainted us that you have

Goods Enough for the whole world w:ch Wee are very glad

to Hear the House at Oswego is such a Convenient Place

for Trade as Can be any where It is a place where all the

farr Indians must necessarily pass Wee desire also

that goods May be Sold Some what Cheaper to us

and that would be a Motive to Draw all the farr

Nations to us and Joyn w:th us for thro’ Cheapness


[0542] 269

of goods will become peace & make unity Give a belt

of wampum

Brother Corlaer

You told us you had been Informed

That when the french Army who went up Last Spring

against the farr Nations that Some French Indians

had been amongst us to Intice some of our young men

to go to Warr them, That they are a Peaceable People

against whom the French now make Warr. That you

Was glad wee refused to go them That those Indians

by these Means would become Friends to the 6 Nations

Brother Corlaer

It is True that the French have desired

It from us, but wee refused and Rejected their Proposall

because wee are Convinced that the French bear us no

Friendship, and wee have no very great Dependance

On them, for their Army Could have Subdued the Six

Nations, and Instead of going to the Foxes Could

Have masterd us While it has been Peace has

made us Severall Threatnings

Brother Corlaer

You have recommended unto us

that wee should Cultivate a Good Understanding

With the farr Indians and Draw them as Much

as Wee Can It is True Wee have had Warr agt. this or

that Nations, but never been the First Aggressors, But

Those who made Warr s:th us have Felt the Weight of

It Wee Promise you to Draw as Many farr Indians

to this Government as Wee Can — Give a Belt


[0543] 269a

Brother Corlaer

You Acquainted us also that you

had a fine Present for us Wherefore Wee thank you heartily

you told us that as soon as Wee had given our answer

you would Deliver it But as it is Late Wee Desire you

may give the same too Morrow

His Ex.cys answer

In answer

As to what you desire in Relation that no Rum should

be Sent up to your Country It is absolutely Necessary to

Send Rum to Oswego for the refreshmt. of the Men there

and those who Do Carry up Provisions I shall give Strict

Orders that none of my People do send or Carry up

and Strong Liquour to your People If any shall Trans=

=gress I Expect you will Inform against them; For

your know how Difficult it is to Restrain them from

Selling as well as is Difficult for your People from

bringing it

I thank you in my Master the King of Great

Brittains name for the land you have Granted

for the use of his Garrison at Oswego, I desire you will

Express how Many 1000 Faddom in length and

breadth you Will grant him, and I will Send up a fitt

Person to Marke out the bounds w:th you and I promise

you not to go beyond these bounds, by this you Will

See that the English do not Deal w:th you as the French

Do Who Take your Land without your Leave

The house at Oswego Was built for your Protection

So I Expect you will Assist me If it be attacked

by any body whatsoever that you will assist the


[0544] 270

Garrison there in Defending it for Nothing Can be

more Naturall than for you to Assist in the Defence of a

Place which is Maintained for your Security

I desire you to Send Some of your People too

Morrow Morning to Receive the Presents

Albany the 5.o of October 1728

A Private Conferrence Held w:th His Excell.y John

Montgomerie Esq:r &c. and Two Sachims of Each of the

Six Nations


Brother Corlaer

Wee are Very glad that you have

Renewed the ancient Covenant and strengthned the

Same w:th us and w:ch wee have on both Sides hitherto

kept Inviolable

Wee are also very glad that you our brother

Corlaer Who is now Come over to us is a wise Prudent

man. Wee must Esteem you So because you have spoken

very Sensibly — Brother — It Seemed yesterday as

If you were Displeased [dissatisfied – crossed out] that Wee did not Promise to

Defend the house at Oswego It has been of old Concluded

betwen your and our Ancestors that wee should be

one body and one heart, So what [was to be – crossed out] is Done to one

Member the whold must be Sensible of it and


[0545] 270a

Defend the Injury Done to any Part of it

Brother Corlaer

Wee have just now Told you that wee are one

body and one Heart you Desired us that when any

Attempt be Made ag.t the House at Oswego that Wee

should Defend It, how Can you Imagine that Wee

Should not do so, for wee have no Affection for the French

Who have been our Ancient Enemies Who Wee in the

Late Warr had almost Subdued & Conquerd for Wee

have Run Down and Destroyed whole Villages So

that If the bones of the French and of us Were gatherd

together It would make Heaps as high as houses

Brother Corlaer

Yesterday when wee made our answer Wee

did not Proceed in Regular order Wee Understood from

you that when any of our Neighbours might be So

bold as to Disturb us Wee need not fear while our

King our Common Father will Protect us who has

a Large Fleet of Shipps Ready to Employ on any


You Told us that our great King is very

Watchfull to have So great a fleet ready on all occasions

Which is very Prudent, but that is a great Distance from

hence, and Can’t Defend us here. Wee hope that you

Will be Pleased to Take the Same Care here to have Every

thing in readiness in Case wee or you should be molest:d

by our Enemies for End it would be very Proper to

have a Magazine at this Place of all thing is necessary

for Warr on Occasion

Brother Corlaer           Wee Desire for the last Time that you may not

be Negligent to have a Magazine here of all things


[0546] 271

Necessary, to be ready on all occasions, but to grant

it and gett it Done, for wee may be attackd by our Enemies

on a Sudden, and when a Magazine is Furnishd, Wee

may want for nothing, for Wee have never made any

Promises on our side to former Governours but wee

Performd them

Brother Corlaer

You may Possibly know more than wee Do, and

know If there be any Likelihood of War, between the

Kings of Great Brittain and France Wee Desire you to

Inform us w:th what you know about that Matter. If there

be any Probability of It Wee begg that Wee may be Informd

and well Supplyed w:th Ammunition, for Wee have never

Waged War w:th any Nation but Wee have Subdued &

Conquerd them

Brother Corlaer

This is the only Method of Security for you and

us to have Amunition Enough in Readiness, In former

Times Wee were sufficiently Supplied w:th it by which Wee

Conquerd out Enemies, and for w:ch Wee were oblidged to

our Brethren who supplied us Cheap, for then Wee Could

buy more for one Bear Skin, than Wee Can for four or

five Now

Brother Corlaer

Wee have Spoake yesterday relateing the Rum

That your People shou’d not Carry it up to our Country

for If Wee See it wee Cannot forbear to buy and Drink it

Wee Desired that no Rum may be brought up, but

Pray understand us right, Wee Do not Mean that no

Rum should be Carryed up at all but none brought

in our Castles, Let it be brought to the Tradeing house


[0547] 271a

At Oswego, but Pray Take Care that the Traders Do not

mix it Water Let them Sell Pure Rum and those

who buy let them Pay for it

Brother Corlaer

This is what wee should have Said yesterday

Wee begg again that you give strict orders to your

People not to Carry up Rum to Our Castles, where they

Come and Intice us to buy it and Drink it Let them

bring it to Oswego but at the Same Time give Particular

Directions that they bring thither Guns and Amunition

and Such things as Wee have occasion for but not

Rum only


Wee Desire also If it be in your Power to Let us have

goods Cheaper than they are Sold to us at Present

Brother            You Desired us yesterday how many 1000

Faddom the Land Wee have granted to his Majtie

at Oswego Should Extend in Length and breadth which

is a thing wee Can’t very well Tell now while Severall

Sachims are at home in our Castles whom Wee

Ought first to Consult as to the Quantity Who would

Otherwise be Displeased at it


The Land w:ch you Desired is absolutely granted to

His Majesty our Common Father on w:ch you may

Depend for it is agreed by us all that he shall have it

but as to the Quantity Wee must Consult first w:th the

rest of the Sachims, and then shall Marke it out

Wee have Said that wee should marke out ye Land for

you when Wee Come home & have Consulted ye. rest of ye Sachims

Pray Let a fit Person go up w:th us and named Lourence

Clace the Interpreter who they Said is one of us and understands

Our Language, Wee have Done Speaking [now – crossed out] and what

have said now Wee should have Said yesterday in Publick but has been



[0548] 272

Answer of       His Excelly John Montgomerie Esq:r

Captain Generall & Gov:r in Chiefe of the

Provinces New: Yorke New Jersey &c


Now Since I have had Two or three meetings

w:th you, [think – crossed out] Like you better than before, because I am better

acquainted w:th you the kind Answer you have given

will Confirm his Majtie in the good Opinion he had of you

that the thing Seemed to Displease me yesterday when

you made Some Difficulty to Assist the English to Defend

Oswego was this, that I have orders from the King of Great

Britain our Father to Assist the Six Nations in Case

any of their Enemies should Attack them, but that you

have now Satisfied me and as Wee are Children of one

Common Father, If any Enemies Attack you I will Send

you Assistance and Come my selfe to Defend you If it be

Necessary as to your Trade of Rum and other things

I shall Take Care, that you Shall not be Abused and

what you Demand be Granted according to your Desire

As to what you Desire to know of the King of Great

Brittains Alliance w:th the King of France they are at

Present in very good Friendship together but as there

has been often War between them, The King of Great

Brittain will Always be ready to go to War in Case

the French Attack you or us; I believe he will have

Large Magazines here and in other convenient Places to Supply all

his Children in Case of War

I Consent that Laurence Clase the Interpreter go

up w:th you as you Desire to Marke out the Land, and

I Expect that you will give your kind Father a Large


You may now when Ever you are ready receive

the Presents I am to make you in name of my Master


[0549] 272a

The King of Great Brittain your Father, You shall

have Provisions for your Journey, and Waggons to bring

you to Snachntdy, the Rum shall be Delivered you above

Snachnatdy, for you have shown the Inconveniency of

your young men Getting Drunk w:th it; I wish you w:th

All my Heart a good Journey home and all Happiness

A Sinneke Sachim stood up & Said

Brother Corlaer

It has been Customary when Wee Come here

Towards the fall that a Smith & an Armourer has

been orderd to go w:th us to Worke in our Country. Wee begg

you to Grant us now that Joseph van Sige and Hend

Wemp may be order’d to go up w:th us who are fitt Persons for our


His Excelly Answerd them

That he would order a Smith and an Armourer to

be Sent to Worke for them but then he Expected that

they would not Suffer the French Smith who is

now there nor any other from Canada to Reside

among them for the future

[0550] 273

A Speech made by His Excelly John Mont=

=gomerie Esq: Captain Gen:ll and Governour in

Chiefe of the Provinces of New York New Jersey &c

To the Schaakook & River Indians in

Albany the 5:o of Octob: 1728

[Printed DRCHNY 5:868 et seq. with some differences in list of those present and time sequence. Summary Wraxall p. 175-176.]


His Excelly Jno Montgomerie Esq:r

George Clarke}           Esq:rs of His Majties Coun:ll

Ph: Livingston}


Captain Long}

Mr. Jam:s D Lansey}


Mynd:t Schuyler}

Evert Bancker }

Rutger Bleecker}        Esq:rs Comm:rs

[J]eremy Renslaer}


I Sent for you my Children to give

you fresh assurance’s of the Protection of the Great

King of Great Brittain My Master Our Common

Father and Sovereign and to Acknowledge in this

Publick manner the Just Sense I have for your former

dutifull behaviour and Fidelity to his Royall Predecessors

and your Affection to your Brethren the rest of His

Subjects in these Parts & in his name & by his order

I renew w:th you the Ancient Coven.t Chain & give you a

Present of Such things as are of use to you and I expect

youl Continue firm to your Duty at all Times to Come

as you have Done in Time Past, and in Doing So you

may rest Assured not only of Protection but of all other

good Offices in the Poser of those that are in Authority

under the King our Common Father & Protector

Give a Belt

I am Concern’d I must Tell you that I am

Inform’d that many of your Nation have of late Mis=

=behaved themselves who on Frivolous Pretences and

Wrong Notions have Left their Native Country


[0551] 273a

Schaakook and gone to Live in Canada a place not so

good and Fertile as they Deserted from, I Exhort you to

use all proper Means to pswade them to Return back, &

Proper Care Shall be Taken that they and you Shall

have Sufficient Land and more than you and your

Children can Cultivate and plant on, That you & they

may Again Shelter under the branches & Leaves of

that Tree of Peace which has long since been planted

at Schaakook. Ile Take Care that the Same Shall Flourish

and grow, and when you hear any Rumours be not

Too Credulous as many of you have been Lately, but

Inform me of it and I will undeceive you, and Tell

you the Truth  Give a Belt

The Indians made Answer

Father Corlaer

Wee are very glad that you are Come to Visit your

Children & Rejoyced to See that the Tree has been long

since Planted at Schaakook which wee thought was

almost Witherd & Decayed is Come to Life again and

getts Nourishm:t and Wee are Extreamly well pleased

to Perceive that the fire w:ch used to burn and was

almost Extinguishd is kindled again Gave Two

Bever Skinns


Wee are much Comforted to hear that you have

Renewed the Ancient Covenant Chain w:th us Wee Do

now do bring fur to wrap it up in that ye Same may not

rust but keep bright and Clean Give Two Beav:r Skinns


Wee are Rejoyced that your Grandfather hath

Such a great value and Esteem for us in Sending you

(one of his Sons) hither to be our Father who Does us

the Honour to Send for us       Give Two Beaver Skinns

[0552] 274


You have recommended unto us that wee should

use our Endeavours to Fetch back from Canada those who

deserted from Schaahkook Wee Promise to use all

Possible means to Perswade them to Return to their

Native Country, Give Two Beaver Skinns

It is Somewhat Difficult for us to Encrease our

Number at Schaahkook It is often Recomended to us

by those in Authority here to Settle there & bring those

back who are gone to Canada for Wee Can Scarcely have

the Land w:ch is Promis’d us and are Molested on that

w:ch is our own by People who Live near us — Wee Came

home Late last Spring from our Hunting and Planted

Some Land; and now this Fall our Indian Corn has

been Carried away

The Fences about our Land are old and rotten

So that the Cattle Distroy much of our Cropps Wee Came

home Late last Spring and found Some of our Land

Planted on by Christians, whom Wee would have paid

for their Trouble but they refused yet wee howed the

Indian Corn Twice, and now your People have ag:t our

Wills and by Violence Carried off the Corn from our


His Excelly: Answerd them


I thank you fore your kind Speech

I shall Acquaint your Grandfather w:t good People

you are

As to the Complaint you have made ag.t

the Christians If you will Let me know the Peoples

names who have Injured you I shall order them

to be Punished and you Satisfied

[0553] 274a

Albany 7:o October 1728

[Printed DRCHNY 5:867 with different wording.]


His John Montgomerie Esq:r

Ph: Livingston

Mynd.t Schuyler

Evert Bancker

Rutger Bleecker

Henry Holland

Peter van Brugh

J: Cuyler

Steph: Groesbeek        } Comm:rs

Evert Windell

Joh: Roseboom

Har. Windell

Reyer Garrison

Abraham Cuyler

Ph. Schuyler

Nicolas Bleeker

Joh.s Lansigh

His Exy not having been able to deliver the

Presents to the Sachims of the 6 Nations in Publick

on Saturday last as he Intended being Prevented by

the Rain the Said Presents were this day Delivered

them by his Said Excy. in Name of His Majtie King

George the Second w:ch Presents Consist of the

following Particulars vizt

66 Fuzees                                40 £ Beads

65 Coats                                  48 Tobacco boxes

66 Hatts                                   54 Looking Glasses

8 Peices Strouds                      23 doz: Clasp knives

6 D.o Duffells                         8 D.o Single

6 D.o Blanketting                   1500 Flints

8 D.o Halfe Thicks                 1000 £ Powder

256 Course Shirts                   12 Casks Tobacco

57 Fine D.o                             1 box Pipes

30 Kettles                                1 Hhd Rum

59 Hatchetts                            6 barrells Porke

14 Doz Stockings

[0554] 275

The Rum shall be Delivered you above

Snachnatdy as I already have Told you, I wish you

a good Journey to your Habitations and hope to meet

again as soon as may be you shall have Provisions for

too Day and for your Journey and too Morrow a Bull

to Hunt, I Desire you to Recommend and Prevent

your young men not to Do mischiefe to the Peoples

Cattle as they go up, I have orderd Two barrells of

Cheer to Drink his Majties Health

[0555] 275a

[Printed in DRCHNY at 5: 868 with different wording.]

The Sachims Answerd

Brother Corlaer

You acquainted us that your Master the King of

Great Brittain our Common Father has Sent w:th you for us

This Present you Could not Deliver it last Saturday by

reason of the Rain, and that the Powder shall be Delivered us

which you Say is very Strong and good, for all which Wee

are very thankfull

Brother Corlaer

Wee are ver glad & Joyfull that wee See you have

Such a great Affection for us this is the Place appoint.d

of old to meet, Wee are very much Rejoyced our Brother

Corlaer is Safely Arrived here because the Sea is So

Dangerous and Tempestious to Cross, Wee have brought

a Small Present to your Exy: for your long Jouney

hither to meet us to Anoint your Feet


Wee wish you a happy Voyage, and shall be

glad to Hear that you are Safe Arrived for Death follows

in Every where wee have now Done to Speak

A Sachim in behalfe of the Sinnekes said

Brother Corlaer

Wee desired you for a Smith and an Armour.r

but wee Do not hear further of it you Spoake ab.t a French

Smith who is there now, he can make no Worke if any our

Brethren be there from hence for he is an old man and

Can Scarcely See and Desire that Jos. van Size and

Hendrick Wemp do now go up along w:th us — Gave a

Few Skinns

Wee would Fain now have the Smith and armourer


[0556] 276

Go up along up w:th us that wee may be Sure of them

Otherwise It may be Neglected

His Excy Replied

That he would give Effectuall orders to ye Comm:rs to get

the Said Smith and Armourer to go as they Desire that

After they have Divided the Presents they shall have a

barrell of Beer to Drink the Kings Health


Minute Book 3: 1728-September: Information from Canada, More Problems at Oswego, Final Preparations for the Conference with Governor Montgomerie

Intelligence from Canada

The Commissioners of Indian Affairs maintained a regular correspondence with authorities on the Massachusetts frontier, with whom they shared intelligence about the French. In September the commissioners sent Thomas Ingersoll to Northampton to pass on a paper to Colonel John Stoddard “Relating this Governor from Canada by two of our Sachams Indians.” The records include a somewhat confusing version of the cover letter but not the paper itself, so we do not know what it said.

Problems at Oswego

The next entry is a deposition taken on September 28th before the Mayor of Albany at the commissioners’ request.  It is sworn to by four people: Jacobus S. Planck, William Hogan Junior, Symon Veder, and Sybrant Van Schaick. The deponents accused an officer at Oswego, Lieutenant John Price, of drinking to excess and causing trouble for the commanding officer, Captain Nicolls. Apparently there was a possibility that Price was going to assume the command of the garrison.  The deponents said he was “no fitt person” for the post.

The garrison was once again in great need of food and the Assembly’s allowance of funds for the year had not provided enough to cover the costs. Moreover illness was still a problem and the sick men were unable to transport goods to Oswego after the Palatines brought them past the Oneida Carrying Place. The commissioners resolved to hire people from the city and county of Albany to assist with transporting goods and to ask Governor Montgomery to covern costs in excess of the allowance from the Assembly.

Montgomerie quickly agreed to put up the money.  The commissioners immediately wrote to the Justices at the Palatine settlement of Burnetsfield asking them to “Impress men and horses to Ride Over the Carrying Place the Batoes and Provisions which are Sent up” for the garrison.  They also wrote to Captain J. Roseboom at Schenectady to retrieve any bags belonging to the public that might be there and sent three men to Oswego with provisions for the immediate relief of the garrison.

The commissioners also agreed with sixteen named individuals and “three men out of the fort”  to go up to Oswego in a bateau to assist with transporting provisions.  Each man was paid 4 pence a day and given a gallon of rum, but left to travel “on [his] own diet.”  Every two men were required to bring back a boat.  Oswego would provide an income for local Dutch and Palatine families but there is no mention of employing the Oneidas or Mohawks living at or near the carrying place.  Horses were now used to carry boats as well as goods past the carrying place, suggesting that roads were improving.

The named individuals are: Yelius D Gardinoy, Sim: Vedder, Evert Evertse, Dirck D Gardinoy, Bernard Bratt, Joh.s V: D.Hyden, Barent Albertine Bratt, Rob.t Dunbar, Jochem Kittleum, Joh.s Wyngaerd, Dour Van Voughen, Evert Yansen, Adam Conde, Joachem V: DeHyd.n, Joh.s V Veghten, and Evert Phillipsie. Minutes of September 30, 1728 p. 262a.

Final Preparations for a Conference

As previous governors had done, Governor Montgomerie issued a proclamation prohibiting the sale of strong liquor during the upcoming conference with the Six Nations. It is printed in Volume 5 of O’Callaghan’s Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York on page 859.  The commissioners sent a messenger to ask the leaders of the River Indians and Schaghticokes to come to Albany.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for September starts here on p. 260. The transcription is below.

[0524] 260

Albany 18th September 1728

Col. Stoddard

Last week we Received the inclosed paper

Relating this Governor from Canada by two of our

Sachams Indians which we now Sand you by Mr. Thomas

Ingorsol the bearer here of you may See the Contents of

the Same wee are

Sir Your Verry humblesevits

on of his Majesties [illeg.] Service

To the                          Coll. Jn.o Stoddard

at North Hampton

or in his absence to the next Justice of the

peace there

[0526] 261

Att a meeting of the Commissioner[s]

of the Indian affairs at Albany

ye 28th 1728


Ph: Livingston

Mynd.t Schuyler

Evt. Bancker

Rutger Blecker

Hen: Holland

St. Groesbeek

Peter van Brugh

Har: Wendell

Jeremiah v. Rensselaer

Nicolas Bleecker

Reyer Gerritse

Baront Sanders                                   Affidavit taken before this Roard [sic] Relating

Leut Price

Albany 28th September 1728

Appeared before Ruger Bleeker Esq.r mayor

of the City of Albany in presence of the for Indian

Attairs [sic] Jacob van Planck Symon Veeder William Hogen

Jun.r & Sybrant van Schaick all a gi’d who being duely

Sworn on the holy Evangelists of almighty god declare

that last winter while the Deponants were at osweego

Leut. John Price did not behave himself will there

being Sundry times in drink when he Could but gett

Strong Liquor and often drank with the Soldiers then

there by which means he was very troublisome to

Capt. Nicolls the Comanding officer the Deponants

for the Depose that the sd. Leut Price in their Judgement

is no fitt person to have the Comand of the Garrison

at osweego if he doth not behave himself better then

he did at the time they were with him at osweego

and further thes deponants Say not

was Signd

Jacobus S Planck

William Hogan Jun.r

Symon Veder

Sybrant van Schaic[k]

Sworne before me

at the Request of the

Comissioners of Indian affairs

at Albany this 28th Septembr. 1728

Rutger Blecker Mayor

[0527] 261a

Whereas this Board being Informed that his

forces Posted at the Garrison of osweego are in great wan[t]

of Provisions to Subsist ym and yt ye Late Assembly

having Provided a fund for provisions for sd Garrison

for the Space of 12 Months & Same Small Incidents to ye

Amount of  £60. which being no ample Provision for ye

Transporting ye sd Provisions & Raggage [sic] to Osweego

which is nevertheless absolutely necessary that the

Same be forthwith Sent up to the sd Garrison [illeg. crosse out]

and the assembly having

Calculated that the Palatines Should Transport the Provisions

on the other Side of the Carrying place and there to deliver

to a Detachmt. Posted at Oswego, and being Assured

that Severall of the Men there are Sick and not able to

Receive and Fetch the Provisions as was Expected, and

therefore Necessary that Proper men of this Citty and

County be hired to bring up Said Provisions and being

Well Assured that no Men are to be had to Carry up the

said Provisions on the Publick Credit unless Some

Engagemt. be made for the Paymt. of  Such Transportation

and Contingent Charges It is therefore the Opinion of

this board That his Excy Montgomerie be

acquainted w:th the Inconveniencys that Attend this

present Service desireing that his Said Excy will be

Pleased to Signifie unto this Board to Engage for the

Payment of Such Incidentall Charges which may Accrue

on the Present Services not Provided for by the Assembly

[0528] 262

[Printed in DRCHNY 5: 859 et seq. The printed version omits a few words, so this one has been transcribed. Another copy can be found on p. 298, scribbled on as though used for scrap paper.]

By His Excie John Montgomerie Captain Gen:ll and

Governour in Chiefe of the Provinces New=York New Jersey and the

Territories depending thereon &c

A Proclomation

Whereas Severall Sachims of the Five

Nations are arrived here wth. Many other Indians to Treat w:th me

about Some Publick Affairs, and Experience has Shown how

Prejudiciall to his Maj.ies Service and Dangerous to the Peace

of the Inhabitants the giveing or Selling of Rum or other stronge

Liquour to those Indians has at all Times been, These are

therefore by virtue of the Powers granted to me by his Majestys

Letters Pattents under the Broad Seale of Great Brittain strictly

Forbidding the Selling or giveing to the Indians any Such

Liquor dureing my Residence in this place as they will

Answer it at their Perill and all Magistrates Justices of

the Peace or Other Civill Officers are hereby Required and

Impowerd to give all due Assistance and Countenance to such

as shall Dilate or Inform agt. any Person or persons Acting

Contrary to the Tenor and Intent of this Proclamation to the

End that Such Delinquents may be Prosecuted and Punish’d

With the Uttermost Severity of the Law, Given under My

Hand in Albany this 30:th day of Septemb.r

In the Second year of his Majesties Reign Anoq. Dom 1728

Copia Vera

[0529] 262a

At the Meeting of the Comm:rs of the

Indian Affairs the 30th Septemb:r 1728


Ph: Livingston

Mynd.t Suhyler

Rutger Blecker

Henry Holland

St: groesbech

Peter Van Brugh

Joh.s Cuyler

Ab: Cuyler

Har. Wendell

Nich.s Blecher

Ev: Wendell

Ph: Schuyler

Ryer Gerritse

Barret Sander

Joh.s Lansigh


Yelus D Gardimoy

Sim: Vedder

Evert Evertse

Dirck D Gardimoy

Bernard Bratt

Joh.s V: D.Hyden

Barent Albertine Bratt

Rob.t Dunbar

Jochem Kittleum

Joh.s Wyngaerd

Dour Van Voughten

Evert Yansen

Adam Conde

Joachen V: DeHyd.n

Joh.s V Veghten

Evert Phillipsie

3 Men out of

the Fort

Reced this day a Letter from his Ex.cie

Govern.or Montgomerie Esq.r &c. whereby his Said Ingages for Paym.t of the Contingent Charges

for the Transportation of the Provisions to Oswege

Not Provided for by the Assembly w:ch is very

acceptable to this Board

Orderd That a Letter be Writ to the Justices

at Burnetsfield to Impress men and horses to Ride

Over the Carrying place the Batoes and Provisions

which are Sent up now for the Supply of the

Garrison at Oswego

Writt a Letter to Capt: J: Roseboom at

Schinechtady to Inquire what baggs are there

belonging to the Publick and to Lett us know

forthwith that they may be Provided here

Sent a Messenger to the Sachims of Schaak=

=koak and River Indians to Come hither on Friday

to Meet his Excie Governour Montgomerie

Just now this Board Dispatched three

Men to go up w:th Provisions w:th all Speed for the

Releave of the Garrison at Oswego

This Day the Comm:srs agreed w:th the Persons in the

Margent: to go up there in a Battoe to bring up provisions

for the Detachment At Oswego a 4/ p Diem Each on their

Own Diet w:th Allowance of a Gallon of Rum for Every

Man and Every Two Men to bring a Battoe back

From Oswego

Minute Book 3: 1728: Laurence Claessen is Sent to Invite the Six Nations to a Conference With Governor Montgomerie

The entries for August 1728 document that the new governor of New York and New Jersey, John Montgomerie, asked the Commissioners of Indians Affairs to send Laurence Claessen to Iroquoia to invite the Six Nations to a meeting with Governor Montgomery by going “from Nation to Nation in the Manner usual.”  They gave the orders to Claessen and informed the governor that they had done so.

This is as good a place as any to insert these paintings of Claessen and his son that now hang on the walls of the Schenectady County Historical Society. They remind us that every time Claessen was sent on a mission like this, he left a family behind.  Or perhaps the boy in the picture came with him sometimes.

Laurence Claessen Van der Volgen
Laurence Claessen. Attributed to Nehemiah Partridge. Held at the Schenectady Historical Society, 32 Washington Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12305 and used with their permission. They give the date as 1725.

Version 2
The child in this painting by John Heaton, made in the early 1700s, is thought to be Laurence Claessen’s son. The painting now hangs at the Schenectady County Historical Society.











In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for May starts here on p. 259. The transcription is below.

[0522] 259

By the Appointed for

managing the Ind.n affairs at


Instructions for

Lourence Claase

Whereas we have Rec.d a lett.r from

His Govornour Montgomeerie dated in new

york ye 14th Aug.t 1728 desireing us therein to

Send you to the six nations of Indians to Sumon

them to meet him at Albany on the first day of

october next precisely

You are therefore hereby required & Comanded

forthwith to go from Nation to Nation in the

Manner usual and te them that his will

be puntually here at the time Appointed you

are not to fayle to make all possible Dispatch

& Expedition Given in Albany this [Sd.] our hands

this 20th of August in the 2d year of his Majesties

Reign Annoqe domini 1728


Henry Holland

Peter Van Brugh

Thomas Williams

Dirk Ten Broeck

Johannis Lansengh

[0523] 259a

Albany 20th Augustus 1728

Mr. Lourance Clasen

Whereas his Governour Monthgomerie

has been Pleased to write a leter to us the Commissioners

Directing us to Acquaint the Six nations o Ind.ns

by you to meet him the sd governour here the

first Day of October next this is therefore to order

you forthwith to sumon the said Nations of

Indians to be punitualy here on ye 1th Day of


Albany 20th August 1728

May it Please y.r

We Received his Excelncly Letter

of the 14th august yesterday and in obedience there

to have this day Dispatched Lourens Clason to

Sumon the Six nations of indians to be punctually

here on the 1st of 8ber [october] next according to the

Directed have orderd him to Come down 10th an we Respects May i please your Excellency

Your Most humbel


Minute Book 3: 1728-May through July: A Doctor is Sent to Oswego

There are no entries for April or June 1728.  During this time New York’s governor William Burnet was replaced by Colonel John Montgomerie, who arrived in New York on April 15th.  Burnet did not leave for his new position as governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire until July.  Many of the records preceding July 1728 are numbered in a way that suggests they are copies rather than originals, leading me to suspect that at some point the new governor had things copied and they got out of order in the process, perhaps leading to the loss of some materials.

The sole entry for May, a copy of a letter from the Commissioners of Indian Affairs to the governor, does not say which governor was being addressed, but the wording suggests that it was Colonel Montgomerie. The commissioners thanked him for acknowledging the importance of security on New York’s frontier and tried to convince him that they needed financial support to guarantee that security since their affairs were conducted on credit.

The letter shows that troops at Oswego were still becoming ill. It is unclear what disease was affecting them or whether it was the same thing that made people sick the year before.   The governor asked the commissioners to find a doctor to address the problem and in their letter of May 13th they said they had agreed with Charles Kerr, “a fitt person” “who understands Bleeding and Phisick,” to go to Oswego for a year in exchange for sixty pounds to be paid on his return. They planned to provide him with “wine Rum & sugar for the use of the sick men.” The governor approved their choice and on July 19th he received his orders to go to Oswego as “chirugeon.”

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the entry for May starts here on p. 216. The transcription is below.

[0436] 216

Albany 13 May 1728

May it please your

Your Ex.cys most Acceptable favours of ye 5th Instant

we Read. and are very glad for ye. kind Assurances your

pleased to give us that you intend to Imploy your thoughts

very much for the Securerity of our fronteer which is very

much of his Majesties Service Advantage of all his Subjects

in this Contenant, if there be no Incouragement to Support

the Credit for ye present Service we are at a loss how, It will

be Supported unless we Ingage our selves for it,

Pursuant to y.r Ex.cys Commands we have Agreed with

a fitt person, to Go to Osswego who understands Bleeding and

Phisick named Mr. Charles Kerr for £60 — Cred of the Governmt

for a year to Commence from the time we can send him thither

at his Return hither to be p. on Certificate from the Comm.

officer he has servd that time, we shall supply him with

some wine Rum & sugar for the use of the sick men and hope

that the next Assembly will provide for the payment of this

& all other Incidents that may Accrue for the Imediate ser=

=vice without which the settlement at Ossweego cant be

maintaind, in what manner & when we shall send Mr. Karr

to Oswegoo we cant tell to hire people on purpose will Cost

at Least £12– more when more provisions be sent thither

he may Conveniently go without much Charges to ye. Publick

however if it be your Ex.cys pleasure we Shall send him directly

& hire men for that purpose

[There are no entries for June 1727]

[0438] 217

By the Commissioners of the Indian affairs

att Albany

To Mr. Charles Kerr.

Whereas His Excellency John Montgomerie Esq.r

Capt. Generall and Govern.r in Chiefe of the Province of Newyork

New Jersey &c. has Directed us to send a fitt Person to the Garrison

at Osweego who understands Phisick and bleeding. and being Informd

that you are a person well Skilld in these arts: These are therefore

by Virtue of a Letter Received from his Said Excellency To desire

and Require You to go to Osweego as Chururgion for the said Garrison

assoon as may be with Such Proper Medicines as we Can now Supply

you with att Present and take under your Care for the time and Space

of one year from the date hereof Such Sick men which now are or Shall

be there belonging to his Majesties Garrison, for which Service

You are to be paid as p. Agreemt. with us by the Government or by

his Said Excellency the sume of Sixty pounds new york money.

Given under our hands in Albany the 19th. Day of July in the

Second year of his Majesties Reign Anno D.o 1728

Philip Livingston

Henry Holland

Joh: Cuyler

Dirck Ten Broeck

Johannes Lansigh

Minute Book 3: 1728-March: Mohawk Leaders Ask About Missing Kahnawake Hunters and Bring News of French Plans to Attack Oswego; The Six Nations Complain About Insults and High Prices at Oswego; The Garrison Needs Food

News from Mohawk Country

The Mohawk leaders Hendrick and Seth met with the Commissioners of Indian Affairs on March third. They said that two “Onnogonque indians” who had moved from Canada to live with the Haudenosaunee at Oriskany had come to a Mohawk castle (i.e. town) from hunting at the little falls on Wood Creek with other Canada Indians.  Two Kahnawake Indians had inquired about the three hunters from Kahnawake who had disappeared on the New England frontier.  Hendrick and Seth asked their “brethren at Albany” for news about the missing hunters, but the commissioners’ response is not recorded.

Hendrick and Seth also said that the Kahnawake Indians told the Mohawks that an army of a thousand Frenchmen were marching on Oswego.  The Mohawks immediately sent a messenger with wampum to inform the rest of the Six Nations.  They acknowledged the English advice to the Six Nations the previous summer urging them to keep their men at home to defend Oswego rather than allowing them to go to war elsewhere.

The English Won’t Let Indians Inside Fort Oswego and Powder is Too Expensive

On March 14th, an unnamed leader from Oneida complained to the commissioners about the situation at Oswego. He spoke in the name of the entire Six Nations. There may have been other Six Nations representatives present, since the commissioners responded using the term “Brethren.”

The speaker began by reminding the commissioners that the Six Nations had agreed to the trading house at Oswego because it was supposed to be for their benefit as well as that of the English.  Now the English at Oswego were preventing people from the Six Nations from coming into the house to warm themselves, or if “any one Obtains that liberty before he can be half warm he is out Doors.” Moreover the Six Nations had expected goods to become cheaper, but instead powder had become more expensive. The speaker pointed out that cheap goods would draw “waganhoes & far Indians” to trade with the English rather than the French. He also reprimanded the commissioners because Oswego was supposed to be “a house of peace” but the English were still at odds with the Governor of Canada much of the time. He presented seven hands of wampum and asked again for cheaper powder and lead as well as a quick response.

The commissioners said they were sorry that the new building was not providing “Such releave as was first Intended by our Gov.r” in the form of cheap power, lead, and other goods.  They said the men at Oswego had not brought enough powder and that they would tell the governor and obtain a “Speedy & Acceptable answer.” They assured the speaker that the governor wanted to provide cheap goods to encourage trade. The rest of their response contains some contradictions and it would be interesting to know what the Oneida speaker thought about them, but nothing is recorded about it. The commissioners blamed the rude reception for Indians at the Oswego trade house on the commander there and on the report that the French were threatening to attack it. At the same time they insisted that there was a “firm peace” between the crowns of France and England.  Despite the firm peace, they cautioned the Six Nations against joining the French war against the “foxes a Nation of Indians Liveing on a breach [branch] of the Mississippi” on the grounds that the French wanted the Six Nations to fight the Fox in order to weaken the Six Nations and prevent trade with the English.

The French were fighting a devastating war with the Fox  (Meskwaki) during this period. Apparently some of the Meskwaki had joined the Six Nations, since the commissioners added that “part of the Same indians are now liveing among you” so the Six Nations should be able to make peace with the rest.

Food, Arms, and Powder for Oswego

Several entries in March deal once again with getting supplies to the garrison at Oswego, which was running low on peas and wheat. One of the commissioners, Philip Livingston, put up the money to provide these goods, which required repairing batoes at Schenectady, fitting them with tarpaulins to keep off the rain, and hiring four men to convey them to the Oneida Carrying Place. Captain Nicolls, the commander at Oswego, would send his men to the carrying place and take the supplies the rest of the way to the fort.  Another commissioner, Harmanus Wendell, put up the money to pay Jacobus Peek for a batoe load of peas.

"Poling a Batteau," as depicted by an unknown artist, probably in the 1880s.
“Poling A Batteau,” from p. 423 of A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times, by Jonathan Pearson. Albany: Munsell, 1883. Artist and date unknown.                           Much of the food for the Oswego garrison was sent there from Schenectady by batteau. According to Pearson, batteaus could be either paddled, poled, or towed by workers walking along the riverbank or through the shallows.


Governor Burnet informed the commissioners that he was sending pork for the garrison as well as orders that anyone who wanted a license to go there should be required to carry arms and powder.  A somewhat confused entry in the records appears to say that the commissioners asked the interpreter at Schenechtady to hire a “trusty Indian” to take a letter to Oswego to convey orders from Colonel Rensselaer (possibly Hendrick Van Rensselaer, who was also a commissioner) to Captain Nicolls that men going to Oswego should take arms and ammunition with them.

In Library and Archives Canada’s digital copy of the original minutes, the first entry for March starts here on p. 213. The transcription is below.

[0430] 213

At a Meeting of the of the Indian

Affairs in Albany the 3.d March 1727/8

[Another copy, substantially the same, can be found on p. 174a.]


Philip Livingston

Myndert Schuyler

Evert Banker

Peter V.n Brugh

Rutger Bleecker

Langerter [Lancaster] Symes

Stephanus Groesbeeck

Nicolaes Bleecker

Hendrick & Seth two Sachims of the mohawks Indians

being arrived here inform that board that 2 Onnogonque indians

who are Removd from Canada to live among the 5 Nations ovis=

=kanie [p. 174a says “at Oriskany] Come to their Castle [blank space] days ago from the little falls

on the wood Creek where they had been on hunting there

with Severall other Canada Indians Say that two Cachnawage

Indians came there in 8 Days from that Castle to inquire of

their brethren at Albany about three Indians who were on

hunting on the fronteers of N. England that are missing wt. is become of ym.

The said Cachnawage indians also Said that an armey of [a]

thousand french men were Actually gone on their march against

the building at Osweege on which we Sent an Express with Seven

hands of wampum to go past day & Night to Inform the rest of the

nations with the french design & Intention & Suppose by this time

it is Reachd as far as the Sinnekes Country you have last Summer

advicd ye. Six Nations not to admit their men to go to war but to

keep them at home for the fear that the french Should make

any attempts against Osweege or the Indians which we have

Observed & taken notice of, & order them only to go hunting near

home to be ready to defend on any Surprise,

[0431] 213a

At a Meeting of the of Indian

Affairs in Albany this 14th day of March

1727/8 Speech made by an oneyde Sachim


Ph: Livingston

Henry Holland

Myndert Schuyler

Langester Symes

Stephanus Groesbeeck

Harmanus Wendle                              Brother Corlaer & quieder

I Speak in the name of the Six Nations its not that

I that have Contrive what I am to Say but its Concluded by

all the nations what I Shall now Say, you have last Summer

desird to build a house at Osweege, and you Said at the

Same time that that house Should be to your & our Advan=

=tage whereon we Considered & did Concent the building

of the Same house but we [Con -crossed out] find it on the Contrary

that its not to our Advantage for we have not the liberty

when we Come there to Enter into the house to warm our Selves

If they of any one Obtains that liberty before he Can be half

warm he is out Doors, we had also thought at the Same

that we Should have had goods cheaper then formerly but

find it the Contrary for the powder is Sold us there by the

Gill therefore Brother Corlaer & quieder we desire that we

May have powder Cheaper there

Brother the reason we desire that Goods may be Sold

us Cheaper is that thereby you will Incourage all the wa=

=ganhoes & far Indians to Come & trade with you & leave the

french at Canada; we Cant much Complain about the

price of Dry goods but only the powder & lead you sell too

dear you Said also when you desird liberty to build the house

that it Should be a house of peace but it Seems often to be

the reverse as we Suppose that you & Gov.r of Canada cant

often agree on the Subject and then there is again again

a time that you maintain a great frindship together,

Brother we desire that you will be pleased to give

us a Speedy answer on the Subject that you will give us

powder & lead Cheaper then you do now because it has

often happend that we have Desird or proposed a matter

we never Rec.d any answer thereon gave a String of 7 hands

of Wampum


[0432] 214



We are Sorry to her that you are Concernd

and afflected that the building at Osweege does not give you

Such releave as was first Intended by our Gov.r to Supply you

with powder & lead & other Necessaries for your use & Convi=

=ence that the Camidities are not Sold you there So Cheap as

you would have them we Shall not faile to Inform our Gov.r

with your request that you may have a Speedy & Acceptable

answer we have no rum [room] to doubt but proper Care will be

taken of Redress for you that powder & lead shall be

Offerd you there Cheaper as has been Sold last winter

it Seems that the men there have not taken Care to Carry

with them Such a Supply as has been necessary for you & that

you have not been well Rec.d at the house is to be im=

=ted & that [Our] are not known to the Commander there

is a report that the french will take it by thretetoun

Otherwise would be rec.d with [Ceivality] its our Chief aim

to Induce the far Indians to Come & trade with the people

of this province & you & he knows ye. greatest motive to draw

them is to give them goods Cheap Which you must acknow=

=ledge are Sold at [ye] very Low rate to Recommend you to

give all the Incouragemt. in your power & free trade is

advantagous to us & you for the more trade we have the

Greater quantity of goods we have to Supply Such trade as

it is a firm peace between the two Crowns of Great brit=

=tain & france So we & the french of Canada who are Sub=

=jects must as long as Continues in frindship & good Continuence

together wherefore we dont think that they will molest

us In the peaceable possession of the house at Osweege if they

Should they break the peace they Cant never Justify Such a vaile

Accout for pretending a right to your land we must needs give

you a Certain not to joyn the french in their pretending war

against the foxes a Nation of Indians Liveing on a breach

of the River of Mississipi, with an Intend to Subdue ym.

for that only Strengthten the french make them proud and

is drawing you from your habitations & bringing a war on


[0433] 214a

You while you Can Live at peace for part of the Same

indians are now liveing among you do reather go on hun=

=ting & because your wives & Children we suppose its more

its more to Stop the trade to us then to Subdue them

Whereas the Garryson at Osweege by the last advice

from Capt. Nicolls will Soon be in want of pease & wheat

meal Wherefore its resolvd that two batoes be Repaird at

Schinechtady four men hird there one hundred Skiple

pease & 100 Sheple wheat meal he [be] brought & 100 bags be

made to put them in to bring it up to the Onneyde Carrying

place to deliver it to the men which Capt. Nicolls is to

Send to receive that there all which Philip Livingston

offers to provide & Stand Securety for & for the Charges which

may come thereon wh. the do resolve & Imagine Shall

be paid & Riembarzd unto ye Sd. Philip Livingston on order

out of the next Messy if the Next Assembly do not

provide & pay for the same

Att a Meeting of the of Indian

Affairs in albany ye 19th March 1727/8


Philip Livingston

Henry Holland

Myndert Schuyler

Peter Vn. Brugh

Hend.k Vn. Renselaer

Langester Symes

Rutger Bleecker

Stepha: Groesbeek

Nicolaes Bleecker

Phil: Schuyler             This Day Recd. a Letter from his

Gov.r Burnet Esq.r Dated the 19 feb. wherein he men=

=tions to have Rec.d ours of the 14 D.o that he will Send

up pork by the return of the Sloops to Send an Express

with a letter for Capt. Nicolls at Osweege & that wh.

any desires lycences to go up there be Requird to de=

=mand  from them by his Exce.cys order to Carry arms &

powder. Every one as last year which the desird Colonel

Renselaer to Order the Capt. of Regimts. to warm [warn] their

Men yt. go up to take arms & amination with them to Swege

Resolvd that his  for Capt. Nicolls best

the Interpreter at Schinechtady) Inclosed in a [letter – crossed out]

letter to Direct him to hire a trusty Indian to Carry the Sd.

letter Express to Osweege with all Convenient Speed —

[0434] 215

Albany the 21 March 1727/8

May it please your Exc.y

We are honourd with your fav=

=vours of the 29th feb.y whereby perceive that your

will take care to Send up pork by the return of

the Sloops, we are about to hire men to Send for Capt.

Nicolls ( As soon as the River is Navigable & free

from Ice with hundred Sheple pease & 100 wheat

Meal the last from the Carrying place to the Carry=

=ing place where we writ him an Express your di=

=rected us to send to Osweege with the [pack] to Send batoes

to the wood Creek to receive those provisions as soon as the

whether will permit,

We suppose the best & Sevelt way to provide provi=

=sions for the Garryson at Osweege will be to Send thither in

may for 12 Moths wh. would Safe much trouble & more Cost &

Charges these are but four batoes Safe & free from rain will

be Requird to have Six Tarpellins made of Course Duck,

Inclosed Send your Excel.y Capt. Nicolls last letter

whereby your will see in what Condition ye. garryson

at [yt. time] & how necessary its to Send them [more illeg. – crossed out]

pease & Meal In wh. no time, we have nothing more wor=

=thy your Notice a psent wherefore Conclude

with that we are with great Esteem & Respect

Philip Livingston        Hend.r Vn. Renselaer

Henry Holland            Rutger Bleeker

Myndert Schuyler       Stephanus Groesbeek

Evert Banker               Har: Wendle

Peter Vn. Brugh          Nicolaes Bleecker

[0435] 215a

Att A meeting of the of ye

Indian Affairs in Albany the 27th

March 1727/8


Philip Livingston

Henry Holland

Myn: Schuyler

Har: Wendle

Ryer Gerritse

Nicolaes Bleker

Mr. Harmanus Wendle Engages to pay

Jacobus Peek for such quantity of pease as the 3

man who go up to the Carrying place can load a batoe wh.

the promise shall be paid unto him at the first

Messy if it be not otherwise paid for by the next Assem=


[There are no entries for April 1728]